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Domain Names

A domain name is a unique name that identifies an internet resource such as a website. It is an identification string that defines a realm of administrative autonomy, authority or control on the Internet. Domain names are formed by the rules of the Domain Name System (DNS). Any name registered in the DNS is a domain name. Domain names are used in various networking contexts and application-specific naming and addressing purposes. In general, a domain name represents an Internet Protocol (IP) resource, such as a personal computer used to access the Internet, a server computer hosting a web site, or the web site itself or any other service communicated via the Internet. In 2014, the number of active domains reached 271 million. Domain names are organized in subordinate levels (subdomains) of the DNS root domain, which is nameless. The first-level set of domain names are the top-level domains (TLDs), including the generic top-level domains (gTLDs), such as the prominent domains com, info, net, edu, and org, and the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs). .tr is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Turkey. It is administered by Middle East Technical University Computer Center The actions of administering and coordinating the ".tr" higher level domain name and the sub-level domain names that take place under it have been undertaken by the Middle East Technical University since 1990 when it was first registered to the Internic. Turkey has accepted the “second level sub-domain name model” in accordance with the decision made by TURIN (Turkish Universities and Research Institutes Network) in 1990. The domain name policies and rules are determined by the “DNS Working Group” consisting of 11 organization representatives who work under the Internet Council.

The list of the second level domain names allotted by the “.tr” Domain Name Administration is as follows: .info.tr : Commercial natural persons and legal entities in Turkey .bbs.tr : Companies and/or institutions giving BBS (bulletin board system) services in Turkey .edu.tr : Is reserved for educational institutions in Turkey .gov.tr : Is exclusive for the Turkish government and its related official bodies and institutions .k12.tr : Educational institutions (elementary and secondary schools) in Turkey .mil.tr : Turkish Military agencies .net.tr : Organizations that provide internet services in Turkey .org.tr : Other organizations in Turkey (foundations, non-governmental organizations, etc.) .av.tr : Legal practitioners, law firms in Turkey .name.tr : Personal use of citizens of Republic of Turkey .tel.tr : Domain names allocated in connection with the telephone numbers of persons living in Turkey .pol.tr : Police Authorities in Turkey .bel.tr : Communal organizations of provinces, country and cities in Turkey .gen.tr : Personal and company use in Turkey .web.tr : Personal and company use in Turkey .dr.tr : Doctors, hospitals in Turkey .biz.tr : Commercial organizations and companies in Turkey .tsk.tr : Turkish military institutions and organizations


A Turkish domain name can be registered from one to 5 years where upon completion of the protection period it can be renewed from one to 5 years with the payment of the respective renewal fee. Applications are made online at https://www.nic.tr. Almost all operations require to use a nic-handle. The nic-handle, which is used together with a password, is a key used for every operation conducted with the “.tr” Domain Name Administration. After the online application, within 10 days it is required to submit a document that proves the relation between the applicant and the domain name to be registered. Such a document may be in form of an extract obtained from the Trade Registry of the country the applicant company is established. Nevertheless it is no more possible to obtain domain name registration for "com.tr", "info.tr", "biz.tr" on basis of Trademark Registration Certificates obtained in foreign countries, but only on the basis of Turkish trademark applications or registration certificates. Also in cases where the domain name is identical with company name, the submission of company register extract shall also be accompanied with documents evidencing its business interest and relationship with a company residing in Turkey. A Power of Attorney, in case a representative is instructed should also be submitted for recordal purposes.

tr. Domain Name Disputes

In the settlement of disputes there is no arbitration mechanism in Turkey. Disputes/conflicts of domain names are currently evaluated and settled by the DNS group, which is a counseling group established under METU consisting of 11 members of different institutions, such as internet Higher Council, Ministry of Transport, Turkish Patent Institute, Internet Service Providers, Turkish Bars Association. Under the current practice, Turkish domain name applications which are not identical with the company name or are based on trademark applications (which have not yet matured into registration) are published in the website www.nic.tr for opposition purposes for a period of 6 months. Any claim by a third party able to evidence his right on the domain name is considered and the DNS group issues its decision on the opposition filed. It is however, also possible to file an opposition in Turkey after the registration and 6 months opposition period before METU.

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